'Philippe's leadership in the 2004 coup d'état against Aristide led to the president's ouster, and Human Rights Watch accused him of overseeing unlawful killings. In the aftermath, Philippe — along with other Haitian police officers, politicians and drug traffickers — became entangled in a U.S. crackdown on Haiti as a narcotics hub for Colombian cocaine. … In the summer of 2007, a secret U.S. mission launched from the Guantánamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba to seize Philippe failed. There would be several other equally unsuccessful attempts.' Click on the link below for my assessment of the geopolitics of the 2004 coup in Haiti.